Faculty ProfilesJay Levy, MD
513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94117
Research in the Levy laboratory is directed at understanding the interaction of viruses and the immune system in microbial pathogenesis. It focuses on HIV infection with the goal of designing novel antiviral therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine for which both innate and adaptive responses are needed. Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. A major emphasis in the laboratory has been on anti-HIV innate immune responses. The research group is evaluating the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), the main producers of type 1 interferons. Studies are directed at understanding how HIV-infected cells induce interferon production from PDC and what cell surface molecules, including toll-like receptors (TLR), are involved in this process. An important potent innate response we have discovered is the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes to suppress HIV replication without killing the cells. This novel CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) is mediated by an as yet unidentified, natural CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) that blocks HIV transcription. In summary, the Levy laboratory has been conducting studies to identify CAF through RNA Seq procedures, to determine the best strategy for an AIDS vaccine and to use genetically modified stem cell approaches towards a potential HIV cure.
Education and Training
|Location||Degree or Training||Specialty||Date|
|NIH, National Cancer Institute||Staff Associate|
|Universite de Paris||Regeneration|
|Columbia University||MD||Medicine and Virology|
|University of Pennsylvania||Med. Internship, Residency I|
|University of California, San Francisco||Med. Residency II|
Awards and Honors
UCSF 150th Anniversary Alumni Award, University of California, San Francisco, 2015
Gold Medal for Excellence in Medical Research, Columbia University, 2008
Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2004
Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology, 2003
UCSF 45th Faculty Research Lecturer, University of California, San Francisco, 2002
Doctor of Science Honorary Degree, Wesleyan University, 1996
Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993
Related Web Sites
In the News
- HIV Research: A Long View on a Small Virus (Jul 11, 2012)
|Project Title||Project Number||Fiscal Year|
|Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource||P41RR001614||2015|
Levy JA, Murphy EL. Schwab M (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus. 2017; 3:2146 - 2149.
Blazek D, Teque F, Mackewicz C, Peterlin M, Levy JA. The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. J Gen Virol. 2016 Jan; 97(1):220-4.
Ye L, Wang J, Beyer AI, Teque F, Cradick TJ, Qi Z, Chang JC, Bao G, Muench MO, Yu J, Levy JA, Kan YW. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5?32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9591-6.
Venditto VJ, Wieczorek L, Molnar S, Teque F, Landucci G, Watson DS, Forthal D, Polonis VR, Levy JA, Szoka FC. Chemically modified peptides based on the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV-1 envelope induce high-titer, epitope-specific nonneutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug; 21(8):1086-93.
Sanou MP, Roff SR, Mennella A, Sleasman JW, Rathore MH, Yamamoto JK, Levy JA. Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10004-15.
Kaushik S, Teque F, Patel M, Fujimura SH, Schmidt B, Levy JA. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and responses to Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 agonists vary in HIV Type 1-infected individuals in relation to clinical state. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):501-10.
Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. Differential transmission of HIV traversing fetal oral/intestinal epithelia and adult oral epithelia. J Virol. 2012 Mar; 86(5):2556-70.
Knox K, Carrigan D, Simmons G, Teque F, Zhou Y, Hackett J, Qiu X, Luk KC, Schochetman G, Knox A, Kogelnik AM, Levy JA. No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 01; 333(6038):94-7.
Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, Hecht R, Daar ES, Collier AC, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Routy JP, Conway B, Kaldor J, Levy J, Schooley R, Cooper DA, Altfeld M, Richman D, Connick E. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):442-51.
Killian MS, Johnson C, Teque F, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Natural suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated by transitional memory CD8+ T cells. J Virol. 2011 Feb; 85(4):1696-705.
Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells. Virology. 2011 Jan 20; 409(2):211-22.
Pereyra F, Jia X, McLaren PJ, Telenti A, de Bakker PI, Walker BD, Ripke S, Brumme CJ, Pulit SL, Carrington M, Kadie CM, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Graham RR, Plenge RM, Deeks SG, Gianniny L, Crawford G, Sullivan J, Gonzalez E, Davies L, Camargo A, Moore JM, Beattie N, Gupta S, Crenshaw A, Burtt NP, Guiducci C, Gupta N, Gao X, Qi Y, Yuki Y, Piechocka-Trocha A, Cutrell E, Rosenberg R, Moss KL, Lemay P, O'Leary J, Schaefer T, Verma P, Toth I, Block B, Baker B, Rothchild A, Lian J, Proudfoot J, Alvino DM, Vine S, Addo MM, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Henn MR, Le Gall S, Streeck H, Haas DW, Kuritzkes DR, Robbins GK, Shafer RW, Gulick RM, Shikuma CM, Haubrich R, Riddler S, Sax PE, Daar ES, Ribaudo HJ, Agan B, Agarwal S, Ahern RL, Allen BL, Altidor S, Altschuler EL, Ambardar S, Anastos K, Anderson B, Anderson V, Andrady U, Antoniskis D, Bangsberg D, Barbaro D, Barrie W, Bartczak J, Barton S, Basden P, Basgoz N, Bazner S, Bellos NC, Benson AM, Berger J, Bernard NF, Bernard AM, Birch C, Bodner SJ, Bolan RK, Boudreaux ET, Bradley M, Braun JF, Brndjar JE, Brown SJ, Brown K, Brown ST, Burack J, Bush LM, Cafaro V, Campbell O, Campbell J, Carlson RH, Carmichael JK, Casey KK, Cavacuiti C, Celestin G, Chambers ST, Chez N, Chirch LM, Cimoch PJ, Cohen D, Cohn LE, Conway B, Cooper DA, Cornelson B, Cox DT, Cristofano MV, Cuchural G, Czartoski JL, Dahman JM, Daly JS, Davis BT, Davis K, Davod SM, DeJesus E, Dietz CA, Dunham E, Dunn ME, Ellerin TB, Eron JJ, Fangman JJ, Farel CE, Ferlazzo H, Fidler S, Fleenor-Ford A, Frankel R, Freedberg KA, French NK, Fuchs JD, Fuller JD, Gaberman J, Gallant JE, Gandhi RT, Garcia E, Garmon D, Gathe JC, Gaultier CR, Gebre W, Gilman FD, Gilson I, Goepfert PA, Gottlieb MS, Goulston C, Groger RK, Gurley TD, Haber S, Hardwicke R, Hardy WD, Harrigan PR, Hawkins TN, Heath S, Hecht FM, Henry WK, Hladek M, Hoffman RP, Horton JM, Hsu RK, Huhn GD, Hunt P, Hupert MJ, Illeman ML, Jaeger H, Jellinger RM, John M, Johnson JA, Johnson KL, Johnson H, Johnson K, Joly J, Jordan WC, Kauffman CA, Khanlou H, Killian RK, Kim AY, Kim DD, Kinder CA, Kirchner JT, Kogelman L, Kojic EM, Korthuis PT, Kurisu W, Kwon DS, LaMar M, Lampiris H, Lanzafame M, Lederman MM, Lee DM, Lee JM, Lee MJ, Lee ET, Lemoine J, Levy JA, Llibre JM, Liguori MA, Little SJ, Liu AY, Lopez AJ, Loutfy MR, Loy D, Mohammed DY, Man A, Mansour MK, Marconi VC, Markowitz M, Marques R, Martin JN, Martin HL, Mayer KH, McElrath MJ, McGhee TA, McGovern BH, McGowan K, McIntyre D, Mcleod GX, Menezes P, Mesa G, Metroka CE, Meyer-Olson D, Miller AO, Montgomery K, Mounzer KC, Nagami EH, Nagin I, Nahass RG, Nelson MO, Nielsen C, Norene DL, O'Connor DH, Ojikutu BO, Okulicz J, Oladehin OO, Oldfield EC, Olender SA, Ostrowski M, Owen WF, Pae E, Parsonnet J, Pavlatos AM, Perlmutter AM, Pierce MN, Pincus JM, Pisani L, Price LJ, Proia L, Prokesch RC, Pujet HC, Ramgopal M, Rathod A, Rausch M, Ravishankar J, Rhame FS, Richards CS, Richman DD, Rodes B, Rodriguez M, Rose RC, Rosenberg ES, Rosenthal D, Ross PE, Rubin DS, Rumbaugh E, Saenz L, Salvaggio MR, Sanchez WC, Sanjana VM, Santiago S, Schmidt W, Schuitemaker H, Sestak PM, Shalit P, Shay W, Shirvani VN, Silebi VI, Sizemore JM, Skolnik PR, Sokol-Anderson M, Sosman JM, Stabile P, Stapleton JT, Starrett S, Stein F, Stellbrink HJ, Sterman FL, Stone VE, Stone DR, Tambussi G, Taplitz RA, Tedaldi EM, Telenti A, Theisen W, Torres R, Tosiello L, Tremblay C, Tribble MA, Trinh PD, Tsao A, Ueda P, Vaccaro A, Valadas E, Vanig TJ, Vecino I, Vega VM, Veikley W, Wade BH, Walworth C, Wanidworanun C, Ward DJ, Warner DA, Weber RD, Webster D, Weis S, Wheeler DA, White DJ, Wilkins E, Winston A, Wlodaver CG, van't Wout A, Wright DP, Yang OO, Yurdin DL, Zabukovic BW, Zachary KC, Zeeman B, Zhao M. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science. 2010 Dec 10; 330(6010):1551-7.
Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92.
Yuan L, Ma L, Fan X, Feng Y, Peng H, Zhao Q, Ruan Y, Levy JA, Shao Y. CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response in long-term HIV-1 infected former blood donors in China. Curr HIV Res. 2009 Jul; 7(4):437-40.
Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408.
Bonneau KR, Ng S, Foster H, Choi KB, Berkhout B, Rabson A, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Virology. 2008 Mar 30; 373(1):30-8.
Song H, Nakayama EE, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Levy JA, Shioda T. A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(13):7280-5.
Sriram U, Wong M, Caillier SJ, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE. Quantitative longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor repertoire expression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 May; 23(5):741-7.
Barbour JD, Sriram U, Caillier SJ, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Oksenberg JR. Synergy or independence? Deciphering the interaction of HLA Class I and NK cell KIR alleles in early HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Apr; 3(4):e43.
Killian MS, Norris PJ, Rawal BD, Lebedeva M, Hecht FM, Levy JA, Busch MP. The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jul; 22(7):640-7.
Sanchez-Mejia RO, Ojemann SG, Simko J, Chaudhary UB, Levy J, Lawton MT. Sacral epithelioid angiosarcoma associated with a bleeding diathesis and spinal epidural hematoma: case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):246-50.
Hare CB, Pappalardo BL, Busch MP, Karlsson AC, Phelps BH, Alexander SS, Bentsen C, Ramstead CA, Nixon DF, Levy JA, Hecht FM. Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Mar 01; 42(5):700-8.
Schmidt B, Fujimura SH, Martin JN, Levy JA. Variations in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) and myeloid dendritic cell (MDC) levels in HIV-infected subjects on and off antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):55-64.
Schmidt B, Ashlock BM, Foster H, Fujimura SH, Levy JA. HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration. Virology. 2005 Dec 20; 343(2):256-66.
Locher CP, Witt SA, Kassel R, Dowell NL, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation. J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr; 86(Pt 4):1171-9.
Elkins MK, Vittinghoff E, Baranzini SE, Hecht FM, Sriram U, Busch MP, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR. Longitudinal analysis of B cell repertoire and antibody gene rearrangements during early HIV infection. Genes Immun. 2005 Feb; 6(1):66-9.
Schmidt B, Scott I, Whitmore RG, Foster H, Fujimura S, Schmitz J, Levy JA. Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation. Virology. 2004 Nov 24; 329(2):280-8.
Martinez-Mariño B, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Kahn JO, Levy JA. Interleukin-2 therapy restores CD8 cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses in primary infection subjects receiving HAART. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):1991-9.
Schmidt B, Ashlock B, Neipel F, Levy JA. Potential screening assay for undetectable viruses on the basis of their capacity to induce alpha interferon production. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 42(9):4300-2.
Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Polacino P, Hu SL, Shiboski S, Schmidt AM, Agy MB, Anderson DM, Staprans SI, zur Megede J, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA vaccine provides partial protection from acute baboon infection. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 02; 22(17-18):2261-72.
Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Retraction. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2004 May 21; 18(8):1087.
Deeks SG, Kitchen CM, Liu L, Guo H, Gascon R, Narváez AB, Hunt P, Martin JN, Kahn JO, Levy J, McGrath MS, Hecht FM. Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load. Blood. 2004 Aug 15; 104(4):942-7.
Martinez-Mariño B, Ashlock BM, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Levy JA. Effect of IL-2 therapy on CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response during primary HIV-1 infection. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Mar; 24(2):135-44.
Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Evaluation of genetic immunization adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope DNA vaccine. DNA Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 23(2):107-10.
Locher CP, Putnam D, Langer R, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Enhancement of a human immunodeficiency virus env DNA vaccine using a novel polycationic nanoparticle formulation. Immunol Lett. 2003 Dec 15; 90(2-3):67-70.
Altfeld M, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Hecht FM, Lee PK, Vogel M, Yu XG, Draenert R, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Feeney ME, Kahn JO, Sekaly RP, Levy JA, Rockstroh JK, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2003 Dec 05; 17(18):2581-91.
Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2003 May 23; 17(8):1119.
Locher CP, Fujimura S, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy JA. Expression patterns of phenotypic markers on lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Jan 01; 19(1):31-40.
Locher CP, Witt SA, Herndier BG, Abbey NW, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Kiviat NB, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy JA. Increased virus replication and virulence after serial passage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in baboons. J Virol. 2003 Jan; 77(1):77-83.
Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Enhancement of antibody responses to an HIV-2 DNA envelope vaccine using an expression vector containing a constitutive transport element. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 21(8):581-6.
Castelli JC, Deeks SG, Shiboski S, Levy JA. Relationship of CD8(+) T cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response to CD4(+) T cell number in untreated asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. Blood. 2002 Jun 01; 99(11):4225-7.
Hecht FM, Busch MP, Rawal B, Webb M, Rosenberg E, Swanson M, Chesney M, Anderson J, Levy J, Kahn JO. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1119-29.
Ghanekar SA, Stranford SA, Ong JC, Walker JM, Maino VC, Levy JA. Decreased HIV-specific CD4 T cell proliferation in long-term HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2001 Sep 28; 15(14):1885-7.
Soumelis V, Scott I, Gheyas F, Bouhour D, Cozon G, Cotte L, Huang L, Levy JA, Liu YJ. Depletion of circulating natural type 1 interferon-producing cells in HIV-infected AIDS patients. Blood. 2001 Aug 15; 98(4):906-12.
Altfeld M, Rosenberg ES, Shankarappa R, Mukherjee JS, Hecht FM, Eldridge RL, Addo MM, Poon SH, Phillips MN, Robbins GK, Sax PE, Boswell S, Kahn JO, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Levy JA, Mullins JI, Walker BD. Cellular immune responses and viral diversity in individuals treated during acute and early HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 2001 Jan 15; 193(2):169-80.
Stranford SA, Ong JC, Martinez-Marino B, Busch M, Hecht FM, Kahn J, Levy JA. Reduction in CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy during primary infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 16; 98(2):597-602.
Schito AM, Vittinghoff E, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Kahn JO, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR. Longitudinal analysis of T-cell receptor gene use by CD8(+) T cells in early human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2001 Jan 01; 97(1):214-20.
Kliks S, Contag CH, Corliss H, Learn G, Rodrigo A, Wara D, Mullins JI, Levy JA. Genetic analysis of viral variants selected in transmission of human immunodeficiency viruses to newborns. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Sep 01; 16(13):1223-33.
Blackbourn DJ, Lennette E, Klencke B, Moses A, Chandran B, Weinstein M, Glogau RG, Witte MH, Way DL, Kutzkey T, Herndier B, Levy JA. The restricted cellular host range of human herpesvirus 8. AIDS. 2000 Jun 16; 14(9):1123-33.
Mackewicz CE, Patterson BK, Lee SA, Levy JA. CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic anti-human immunodeficiency virus response inhibits expression of viral RNA but not reverse transcription or provirus integration. J Gen Virol. 2000 May; 81(Pt 5):1261-4.
Locher CP, Grant RM, Collisson EA, Reyes-Terán G, Elbeik T, Kahn JO, Levy JA. Antibody and cellular immune responses in breakthrough infection subjects after HIV type 1 glycoprotein 120 vaccination. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Dec 10; 15(18):1685-9.
Mourich DV, Lee S, Reyes-Teran G, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Lack of differences in nef alleles among HIV-infected asymptomatic long-term survivors and those who progressed to disease. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Nov 20; 15(17):1573-5.
Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by a soluble factor produced by CD8+ lymphocytes from HIV-2-infected baboons. Immunol Lett. 1999 Mar; 66(1-3):151-7.
Stranford SA, Skurnick J, Louria D, Osmond D, Chang SY, Sninsky J, Ferrari G, Weinhold K, Lindquist C, Levy JA. Lack of infection in HIV-exposed individuals is associated with a strong CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 02; 96(3):1030-5.
Greco G, Fujimura SH, Mourich DV, Levy JA. Differential effects of human immunodeficiency virus isolates on beta-chemokine and gamma interferon production and on cell proliferation. J Virol. 1999 Feb; 73(2):1528-34.
Blackbourn DJ, Osmond D, Levy JA, Lennette ET. Increased human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in young homosexual men who have multiple sex contacts with different partners. J Infect Dis. 1999 Jan; 179(1):237-9.
Barker E, Mackewicz CE, Reyes-Terán G, Sato A, Stranford SA, Fujimura SH, Christopherson C, Chang SY, Levy JA. Virological and immunological features of long-term human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals who have remained asymptomatic compared with those who have progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Blood. 1998 Nov 01; 92(9):3105-14.
Rezza G, Lennette ET, Giuliani M, Pezzotti P, Caprilli F, Monini P, Buttò S, Lodi G, Di Carlo A, Levy JA, Ensoli B. Prevalence and determinants of anti-lytic and anti-latent antibodies to human herpesvirus-8 among Italian individuals at risk of sexually and parenterally transmitted infections. Int J Cancer. 1998 Jul 29; 77(3):361-5.
Locher CP, Barnett SW, Herndier BG, Blackbourn DJ, Reyes-Terán G, Murthy KK, Brasky KM, Hubbard GB, Reinhart TA, Haase AT, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection in baboons is an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis in humans. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1998 Jun; 122(6):523-33.
Barker E, Bossart KN, Levy JA. Primary CD8+ cells from HIV-infected individuals can suppress productive infection of macrophages independent of beta-chemokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Feb 17; 95(4):1725-9.
Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Herndier BG, Reyes-Terán G, Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Levy JA. Transient virus infection and pathogenesis of a new HIV type 2 isolate, UC12, in baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 01; 14(1):79-82.
Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Cobb EK, Rouse S, Greco G, Reyes-Terán G, Brasky KM, Carey KD, Levy JA. Superinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 can reactivate virus production in baboons but is contained by a CD8 T cell antiviral response. J Infect Dis. 1997 Oct; 176(4):948-59.
Gulizia RJ, Collman RG, Levy JA, Trono D, Mosier DE. Deletion of nef slows but does not prevent CD4-positive T-cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected human-PBL-SCID mice. J Virol. 1997 May; 71(5):4161-4.
Barker E, Bossart KN, Locher CP, Patterson BK, Levy JA. CD8+ cells from asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals suppress superinfection of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Gen Virol. 1996 Dec; 77 ( Pt 12):2953-62.
Blackbourn DJ, Mackewicz CE, Barker E, Hunt TK, Herndier B, Haase AT, Levy JA. Suppression of HIV replication by lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells correlates with the clinical state of HIV-infected individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 12; 93(23):13125-30.
Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Castro BA, Brasky KM, Levy JA. Susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from gorillas, orangutans and baboons to diverse HIV isolates. AIDS. 1996 Oct; 10(12):1438-40.
Murthy KK, Cobb EK, el-Amad Z, Ortega H, Hsueh FC, Satterfield W, Lee DR, Kalish ML, Haigwood NL, Kennedy RC, Steimer KS, Schultz A, Levy JA. Titration of a vaccine stock preparation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1SF2 in cultured lymphocytes and in chimpanzees. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Sep 20; 12(14):1341-8.
Voss TG, Fermin CD, Levy JA, Vigh S, Choi B, Garry RF. Alteration of intracellular potassium and sodium concentrations correlates with induction of cytopathic effects by human immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 1996 Aug; 70(8):5447-54.
Gulizia RJ, Levy JA, Mosier DE. The envelope gp120 gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 determines the rate of CD4-positive T-cell depletion in SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood leukocytes. J Virol. 1996 Jun; 70(6):4184-7.
Miller G, Rigsby MO, Heston L, Grogan E, Sun R, Metroka C, Levy JA, Gao SJ, Chang Y, Moore P. Antibodies to butyrate-inducible antigens of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in patients with HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 16; 334(20):1292-7.
Barker E, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Effects of TH1 and TH2 cytokines on CD8+ cell response against human immunodeficiency virus: implications for long-term survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 21; 92(24):11135-9.
Tang S, Patterson B, Levy JA. Highly purified quiescent human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells are infectible by human immunodeficiency virus but do not release virus after activation. J Virol. 1995 Sep; 69(9):5659-65.
Allan JS, Ray P, Broussard S, Whitehead E, Hubbard G, Butler T, Brasky K, Luciw P, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Infection of baboons with simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Aug 15; 9(5):429-41.
Luciw PA, Pratt-Lowe E, Shaw KE, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Persistent infection of rhesus macaques with T-cell-line-tropic and macrophage-tropic clones of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 01; 92(16):7490-4.
Sawai ET, Baur AS, Peterlin BM, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. A conserved domain and membrane targeting of Nef from HIV and SIV are required for association with a cellular serine kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 23; 270(25):15307-14.
Ambroziak JA, Blackbourn DJ, Herndier BG, Glogau RG, Gullett JH, McDonald AR, Lennette ET, Levy JA. Herpes-like sequences in HIV-infected and uninfected Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Science. 1995 Apr 28; 268(5210):582-3.
Herndier BG, Werner A, Arnstein P, Abbey NW, Demartis F, Cohen RL, Shuman MA, Levy JA. Characterization of a human Kaposi's sarcoma cell line that induces angiogenic tumors in animals. AIDS. 1994 May; 8(5):575-81.
Koito A, Harrowe G, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Functional role of the V1/V2 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in infection of primary macrophages and soluble CD4 neutralization. J Virol. 1994 Apr; 68(4):2253-9.
Ichimura H, Kliks SC, Visrutaratna S, Ou CY, Kalish ML, Levy JA. Biological, serological, and genetic characterization of HIV-1 subtype E isolates from northern Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Mar; 10(3):263-9.
Sawai ET, Baur A, Struble H, Peterlin BM, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef associates with a cellular serine kinase in T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 15; 91(4):1539-43.
Dumitrescu O, Kalish ML, Kliks SC, Bandea CI, Levy JA. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from children in Romania: identification of a new envelope subtype. J Infect Dis. 1994 Feb; 169(2):281-8.
Kliks SC, Shioda T, Haigwood NL, Levy JA. V3 variability can influence the ability of an antibody to neutralize or enhance infection by diverse strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15; 90(24):11518-22.
Barnett SW, Quiroga M, Werner A, Dina D, Levy JA. Distinguishing features of an infectious molecular clone of the highly divergent and noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain. J Virol. 1993 Feb; 67(2):1006-14.
Castro BA, Homsy J, Lennette E, Murthy KK, Eichberg JW, Levy JA. HIV-1 expression in chimpanzees can be activated by CD8+ cell depletion or CMV infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 Dec; 65(3):227-33.
Shioda T, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Small amino acid changes in the V3 hypervariable region of gp120 can affect the T-cell-line and macrophage tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 15; 89(20):9434-8.
Tang S, Poulin L, Levy JA. Lack of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and accumulation of viral DNA in HIV-1-infected T cells blocked in cell replication. J Gen Virol. 1992 Apr; 73 ( Pt 4):933-9.
Le Guern M, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 can superinfect HIV-2-infected cells: pseudotype virions produced with expanded cellular host range. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 01; 89(1):363-7.
Cheng-Mayer C, Shioda T, Levy JA. Host range, replicative, and cytopathic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are determined by very few amino acid changes in tat and gp120. J Virol. 1991 Dec; 65(12):6931-41.
Pan LZ, Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W, Levy JA. Lack of detection of human immunodeficiency virus in persistently seronegative homosexual men with high or medium risks for infection. J Infect Dis. 1991 Nov; 164(5):962-4.
Walker CM, Erickson AL, Hsueh FC, Levy JA. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication in acutely infected CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells involves a noncytotoxic mechanism. J Virol. 1991 Nov; 65(11):5921-7.
Walker CM, Thomson-Honnebier GA, Hsueh FC, Erickson AL, Pan LZ, Levy JA. CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals inhibit acute infection by human and primate immunodeficiency viruses. Cell Immunol. 1991 Oct 15; 137(2):420-8.
Weintrub PS, Ulrich PP, Edwards JR, Boucher F, Levy JA, Cowan MJ, Vyas GN. Use of polymerase chain reaction for the early detection of HIV infection in the infants of HIV-seropositive women. AIDS. 1991 Jul; 5(7):881-4.
Barnett SW, Barboza A, Wilcox CM, Forsmark CE, Levy JA. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains recovered from the bowel of infected individuals. Virology. 1991 Jun; 182(2):802-9.
Martin NL, Levy JA, Legg H, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW. Detection of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in infants by an anti-HIV immunoglobulin A assay using recombinant proteins. J Pediatr. 1991 Mar; 118(3):354-8.
Liu ZQ, Wood C, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. The viral envelope gene is involved in macrophage tropism of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain isolated from brain tissue. J Virol. 1990 Dec; 64(12):6148-53.
Cheng-Mayer C, Quiroga M, Tung JW, Dina D, Levy JA. Viral determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 T-cell or macrophage tropism, cytopathogenicity, and CD4 antigen modulation. J Virol. 1990 Sep; 64(9):4390-8.
York-Higgins D, Cheng-Mayer C, Bauer D, Levy JA, Dina D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cellular host range, replication, and cytopathicity are linked to the envelope region of the viral genome. J Virol. 1990 Aug; 64(8):4016-20.
Cheng-Mayer C, Weiss C, Seto D, Levy JA. Isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from the brain may constitute a special group of the AIDS virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Nov; 86(21):8575-9.
Edwards JR, Ulrich PP, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Levy JA, Wara DW, Vyas GN. Polymerase chain reaction compared with concurrent viral cultures for rapid identification of human immunodeficiency virus infection among high-risk infants and children. J Pediatr. 1989 Aug; 115(2):200-3.
Evans LA, Thomson-Honnebier G, Steimer K, Paoletti E, Perkus ME, Hollander H, Levy JA. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is directed against both the gp120 and gp41 envelope proteins of HIV. AIDS. 1989 May; 3(5):273-6.
Morrow WJ, Homsy J, Eichberg JW, Krowka J, Pan LZ, Gaston I, Legg H, Lerche N, Thomas J, Levy JA. Long-term observation of baboons, rhesus monkeys, and chimpanzees inoculated with HIV and given periodic immunosuppressive treatment. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1989 Apr; 5(2):233-45.
Castro BA, Walker CM, Tateno M, Cheng-Mayer C, Heberling R, Eichberg JW, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from experimentally infected chimpanzees: isolation and characterization. J Med Primatol. 1989; 18(3-4):337-42.
Evans LA, Moreau J, Odehouri K, Seto D, Thomson-Honnebier G, Legg H, Barboza A, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Simultaneous isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 from an AIDS patient. Lancet. 1988 Dec 17; 2(8625):1389-91.
Walker CM, Steimer KS, Rosenthal KL, Levy JA. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope type-specific T helper cells in an HIV-infected individual. J Clin Invest. 1988 Dec; 82(6):2172-5.
Winkelstein W, Wiley JA, Padian NS, Samuel M, Shiboski S, Ascher MS, Levy JA. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: continued decline in HIV seroconversion rates among homosexual/bisexual men. Am J Public Health. 1988 Nov; 78(11):1472-4.
Jacobson MA, Crowe S, Levy J, Aweeka F, Gambertoglio J, McManus N, Mills J. Effect of Foscarnet therapy on infection with human immunodeficiency virus in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct; 158(4):862-5.
Evans LA, Moreau J, Odehouri K, Legg H, Barboza A, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Characterization of a noncytopathic HIV-2 strain with unusual effects on CD4 expression. Science. 1988 Jun 10; 240(4858):1522-5.
Dean NC, Golden JA, Evans LA, Warnock ML, Addison TE, Hopewell PC, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus recovery from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with AIDS. Chest. 1988 Jun; 93(6):1176-9.
Cheng-Mayer C, Homsy J, Evans LA, Levy JA. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes with distinct patterns of sensitivity to serum neutralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr; 85(8):2815-9.
Nelson JA, Wiley CA, Reynolds-Kohler C, Reese CE, Margaretten W, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus detected in bowel epithelium from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Lancet. 1988 Feb 06; 1(8580):259-62.
Homsy J, Thomson-Honnebier GA, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in serum and body fluids by sequential competition ELISA. J Virol Methods. 1988 Jan; 19(1):43-56.
Eichberg JW, Zarling JM, Alter HJ, Levy JA, Berman PW, Gregory T, Lasky LA, McClure J, Cobb KE, Moran PA. T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its recombinant antigens in HIV-infected chimpanzees. J Virol. 1987 Dec; 61(12):3804-8.
Gerberding JL, Bryant-LeBlanc CE, Nelson K, Moss AR, Osmond D, Chambers HF, Carlson JR, Drew WL, Levy JA, Sande MA. Risk of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B virus to health care workers exposed to patients with AIDS and AIDS-related conditions. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul; 156(1):1-8.
Winkelstein W, Samuel M, Padian NS, Wiley JA, Lang W, Anderson RE, Levy JA. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: III. Reduction in human immunodeficiency virus transmission among homosexual/bisexual men, 1982-86. Am J Public Health. 1987 Jun; 77(6):685-9.
Stricker RB, McHugh TM, Moody DJ, Morrow WJ, Stites DP, Shuman MA, Levy JA. An AIDS-related cytotoxic autoantibody reacts with a specific antigen on stimulated CD4+ T cells. Nature. 1987 Jun 25-Jul 1; 327(6124):710-3.
Haran-Ghera N, Peled A, Leef F, Hoffman AD, Levy JA. Enhanced AKR leukemogenesis by the dual tropic viruses. I. The time and site of origin of potential leukemic cells. Leukemia. 1987 May; 1(5):442-9.
Cheng-Mayer C, Rutka JT, Rosenblum ML, McHugh T, Stites DP, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus can productively infect cultured human glial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May; 84(10):3526-30.
Kaplan LD, Wolfe PR, Volberding PA, Feorino P, Levy JA, Abrams DI, Kiprov D, Wong R, Kaufman L, Gottlieb MS. Lack of response to suramin in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Am J Med. 1987 Mar 23; 82(3 Spec No):615-20.
Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Hearst NG, Pan LZ, Conant MA, Abrams DI, Hollander H, Levy JA. Relation of oral hairy leukoplakia to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the risk of developing AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1987 Mar; 155(3):475-81.
Koenig RE, Pittaluga J, Bogart M, Castro M, Nunez F, Vilorio I, Delvillar L, Calzada M, Levy JA. Prevalence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in Dominicans and Haitians in the Dominican Republic. JAMA. 1987 Feb 06; 257(5):631-4.
Lang W, Anderson RE, Perkins H, Grant RM, Lyman D, Winkelstein W, Royce R, Levy JA. Clinical, immunologic, and serologic findings in men at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The San Francisco Men's Health Study. JAMA. 1987 Jan 16; 257(3):326-30.
Winkelstein W, Lyman DM, Padian N, Grant R, Samuel M, Wiley JA, Anderson RE, Lang W, Riggs J, Levy JA. Sexual practices and risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. The San Francisco Men's Health Study. JAMA. 1987 Jan 16; 257(3):321-5.
Levy JA, Pan LZ, Beth-Giraldo E, Kaminsky LS, Henle G, Henle W, Giraldo G. Absence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in sera from Africa prior to 1975. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct; 83(20):7935-7.
Morrow WJ, Wharton M, Stricker RB, Levy JA. Circulating immune complexes in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome contain the AIDS-associated retrovirus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1986 Sep; 40(3):515-24.
Steimer KS, Puma JP, Power MD, Powers MA, George-Nascimento C, Stephans JC, Levy JA, Sanchez-Pescador R, Luciw PA, Barr PJ. Differential antibody responses of individuals infected with AIDS-associated retroviruses surveyed using the viral core antigen p25gag expressed in bacteria. Virology. 1986 Apr 15; 150(1):283-90.
Wofsy CB, Cohen JB, Hauer LB, Padian NS, Michaelis BA, Evans LA, Levy JA. Isolation of AIDS-associated retrovirus from genital secretions of women with antibodies to the virus. Lancet. 1986 Mar 08; 1(8480):527-9.
Ragni MV, Tegtmeier GE, Levy JA, Kaminsky LS, Lewis JH, Spero JA, Bontempo FA, Handwerk-Leber C, Bayer WL, Zimmerman DH. AIDS retrovirus antibodies in hemophiliacs treated with factor VIII or factor IX concentrates, cryoprecipitate, or fresh frozen plasma: prevalence, seroconversion rate, and clinical correlations. Blood. 1986 Mar; 67(3):592-5.
McHugh TM, Stites DP, Casavant CH, Carlson JR, Yee J, McVay PA, Busch MP, Levy JA. Evaluation of the indirect immunofluorescence assay as a confirmatory test for detecting antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus. Diagn Immunol. 1986; 4(5):233-40.
Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, McHugh T, Casavant C, Stites D, Oshiro L. AIDS-associated retroviruses (ARV) can productively infect other cells besides human T helper cells. Virology. 1985 Dec; 147(2):441-8.
Morrow WJ, Ohashi Y, Hall J, Pribnow J, Hirose S, Shirai T, Levy JA. Dietary fat and immune function. I. Antibody responses, lymphocyte and accessory cell function in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. J Immunol. 1985 Dec; 135(6):3857-63.
Levy JA, Kaminsky LS, Morrow WJ, Steimer K, Luciw P, Dina D, Hoxie J, Oshiro L. Infection by the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinical, biological, and molecular features. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Nov; 103(5):694-9.
Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, Hollander H, Mills J, Kaminsky L. Isolation of AIDS-associated retroviruses from cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with neurological symptoms. Lancet. 1985 Sep 14; 2(8455):586-8.
Kaminsky LS, McHugh T, Stites D, Volberding P, Henle G, Henle W, Levy JA. High prevalence of antibodies to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated retrovirus (ARV) in AIDS and related conditions but not in other disease states. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug; 82(16):5535-9.
Kiprov DD, Anderson RE, Morand PR, Simpson DM, Chermann JC, Levy JA, Ross AR. Antilymphocyte antibodies and seropositivity for retroviruses in groups at high risk for AIDS. N Engl J Med. 1985 Jun 06; 312(23):1517.
Levy JA, Tobler LH, McHugh TM, Casavant CH, Stites DP. Long-term cultivation of T-cell subsets from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1985 Jun; 35(3):328-36.
Koerper MA, Kaminsky LS, Levy JA. Differential prevalence of antibody to AIDS-associated retrovirus in haemophiliacs treated with Factor VIII concentrate versus cryoprecipitate: recovery of infectious virus. Lancet. 1985 Feb 02; 1(8423):275.
Sanchez-Pescador R, Power MD, Barr PJ, Steimer KS, Stempien MM, Brown-Shimer SL, Gee WW, Renard A, Randolph A, Levy JA. Nucleotide sequence and expression of an AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV-2). Science. 1985 Feb 01; 227(4686):484-92.
Cooper DA, Gold J, May W, Kaminsky LS, Penny R, Levy JA. Contact tracing in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence for transmission of virus and disease by an asymptomatic carrier. Med J Aust. 1984 Oct 27; 141(9):579-82.
Varnier OE, Hoffman AD, Nexø BA, Levy JA. Murine xenotropic type C viruses. V. Biologic and structural differences among three cloned retroviruses isolated from kidney cells from one NZB mouse. Virology. 1984 Jan 15; 132(1):79-94.
Ollero M, Leal M, Wichmann I, Lissen E, Levy JA. Antibodies to the AIDS-associated retrovirus in hemophiliacs and other individuals from southern Spain: lack of correlation with lymphocytes sub-populations. AIDS Res. 1984-1985; 1(6):439-45.
Levy JA, Jakob H, Paulin D, Kelly F, Chermann JC, Jacob F. Productive infection of embryonal carcinoma cells with ecotropic mouse type C viruses and subsequent arrest of differentiation. Virology. 1982 Jul 15; 120(1):157-70.
Levy JA, Ibrahim AB, Shirai T, Ohta K, Nagasawa R, Yoshida H, Estes J, Gardner M. Dietary fat affects immune response, production of antiviral factors, and immune complex disease in NZB/NZW mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Mar; 79(6):1974-8.
Levy JA, Joyner J, Nayar KT, Kouri RE. Genetics of xenotropic virus expression in mice. I. Evidence for a single locus regulating spontaneous production of infectious virus in crosses involving NZB/B1NJ and 129/J strains of mice. J Virol. 1979 Jun; 30(3):754-8.
Hahn BH, Mehta J, Knotts LL, Ihle JN, Levy JA. The effect of altered lymphocyte function on the immunologic disorders of NZB/NZW mice. Response to anti-thymocyte globulin. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1977 Sep; 8(2):225-37.
Leong JC, Kane JP, Oleszko O, Levy JA. Antigen-specific nonimmunoglobulin factor that neutralizes xenotropic virus is associated with mouse serum lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jan; 74(1):276-80.